Endogenous Development; an Alternative for De-escalation of Identity Crisis among Iranian Women and Their Houses

Document Type : Original Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, School of Architecture, University College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran.


Nowadays, huge tendency to fashion and consumerism could be assumed as the origin of identity
crisis among women and in their houses. This phenomenon is like a veil between man and the fact of his human being. Given that the physical properties of man-made environments (house) are influenced by human properties and, in return, have an important role in giving identity to their audience, identification of different dimensions of these properties can be useful in the creation of physical environment with the goal of overwhelming such a crisis. In this study, the roots and effects of the tendency toward fashion and consumerism were explored. It is believed that modernism and materialism are the main causes for the current crisis. At the second stage, to understand the nature of relationship between humans and their environments, theories from semiotics, phenomenology, and semantics were studied. After reviewing many sources, it was found out that self awareness is the only way to promote women and their houses’
identities. Finally, using a logical reasoning method, among all reviewed approaches, Endogenous Development Model was confirmed as the best approach to getting out of the kind of crisis explained above. According to the findings, this approach can pave the ground for inhabitants’ growth in addition to creating valuable places with their unique identity.


Barrie, Th. (1996). Spiritual Path, Sacred Place: Myth,
Ritual, and Meaning in Architecture. Boston & London:
Shambhala Publications.
Billig, M.(2005). Sense of place in the neighborhood, in
locations of urban revitalization. GeoJournal, 64,117–130.
Easthope, H. (2009). Fixed Identities in a Mobile World?
The RelationshipBetween Mobility, Place, and Identity.
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, no.16, 61- 82.
El-Rafey, M. (1992). Housing and women: Econstruction
of women's point of view. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Michigan.
Enayat, H., & Soroush, M. (2009). Extent and Type of
Women`s Resistance Confronting Power Structure in Everyday
Life. Quarterly of women in development and politics (Research
of women) ,vol. 7.no.2, 85-112.
Habib, F., & Khastoo, M.(2014). An Analytical Approach to
the Impact of Urban Physical Aspects on Culture and Behavior.
International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development
,vol 4, no.1, 17-24.
Heidegger, M. (2001). Poetry, Language, Thought. (A.
Hofstadter. Transe.). Harper Perennial. New York: Modern
Islami, S,Gh. & Islami,Y. (2012). Two Paradigms of
Endogenous Development: Production Process & Supplydemand
Relationship. International Journal of Architecture
and Urban Development ,vol 2, no.1, 21-28.
Islami, S,Gh. (1998). Endogenous Development: A Model
for the Process of Man-Environment Transaction. Doctoral
Dissertation, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Herriot-Watt
University. Edinburgh.
Lentini, L., & Decortis, F.(2010). Space and places: when
interacting with and in physical space becomes a meaningful
experience. Pers Ubiquit Comput, no.4 , 407–415.
Maslow, A. (1987). Motivation and personality. Michigan:
Pearson, Harper and Row. The University of Michigan.
Rafatjaah, M. (2007). Human Identity of Women in the
Challenge of Fashion and Trimmin. Women Strategic studies
(previously women book), no.38,135-179.
Rapoport, A. (2012). The Meaning of the Built Environment:
A Nonverbal Communication Approach. (F. Habib, Trans).
Tehran: Tehran Municipality ICT Organization.
Rogers, C. (1995). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist's
View of Psychotherapy. New York: Mariner Books.
Sadiq Banai, H. (2012). Black Art. The online version of
the Iranian daily Hamshahri. (2012, February 3) From http://
Toker, Z. ( 2004). Women’s Spatial Needs in Housing:
Accommodating Gender Ideeologes, Use Pattrns, and Privacy.
Unpublished doctoral Dissertation, North Carolina State
University. USA.
White, D. , Virden, J., & Riper, C. (2008). Effects of Place
Identity, Place Dependence, and Experience-Use History
on Perceptions of Recreation Impacts in a Natural Setting.
Environmental Management. (2008), No,42,647–657.
Yousefi, A., & Tabei, M. (2011). Experimental
phenomenology as a way to understand religious experiences.
Quarterly of historical sociology ,vol.4, no.1,71-93.