Role of Environmental Dimensions on well-being: Qualitative Approach

Document Type : Applied Article

Authors

1 Urban Planning Department, Buin Zahra Buin Zahra Tecchnical University, Iran.

2 Urban Planning Department, Buin Zahra Tecchnical University, Iran.

3 M.A. in Regional and Urban Planning, Department of Urban Planning, Guilan University, Guilan, Iran

Abstract

Environmental dimensions can be used as indicators of urban quality of life due to their potential contribution to subjective well-being. The environment is constituted by the interacting systems of physical, biological, and social elements interrelated in various ways, individually and collectively. This study aims to uncover qualitatively whether these two environmental elements, namely social and physical factors, are indeed predictors of subjective well-being and reliable indicators of quality of life in cities. The study presents and tests a model that examines a matrix of cross-effects between social and physical indicators with subjective well-being. Data are obtained through an expert survey in the city of Tehran. In this approach, a group of urban planners undertakes the effect of social and physical components on subjective well-being. First, the existing literature is studied, and the related components are identified. Then, some interviews are made, and the cross-section analysis effects are extracted in a cross-effect matrix. As the finding revealed, among physical factors, percapita and spatial justice can have the highest impact on subjective well-being in Tehran. This was followed by access to urban transportation networks depending on their type, quality, and amount. Also, commute, neighborhood, housing, and job satisfaction were predictors of subjective well-being. Among social factors, spending leisure time, continuous social interactions, and health status impact subjective well-being. 

Keywords

Main Subjects


Agrawal, N. (2019). A framework for Crosby's quality principles using ISM and MICMAC approaches. The TQM Journal. 
Ala-Mantila, S., Heinonen, J., Junnila, S., & Saarsalmi, P. (2018). Spatial nature of urban well-being. Regional S‌tudies, 52(7), 959-973. 
Aletta, F., & Kang, J. (2018). Towards an urban vibrancy model: A soundscape approach. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(8), 1712. 
Asnawi, R., Arifin, B., Zakaria, W. A., Banuwa, I. S., & Abidin, Z. (2020). Analysis of key variables for rice farming sus‌tainability in the downs‌tream of Sekampung watershed: an application of Micmac method. Plant Archives (International Journal of Plant Research), 20(2), 7895-7904. 
Besser, L. M., & Dannenberg, A. L. (2005). Walking to public transit: s‌teps to help meet physical activity recommendations. American journal of preventive medicine, 29(4), 273-280. 
Bongaarts, J. (2013). US health in international perspective: Shorter lives, poorer health. In: JS‌tOR.
Caldwell, L. L. (2005). Leisure and health: why is leisure therapeutic?. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 33(1), 7-26. 
Campbell, S., Greenwood, M., Prior, S., Shearer, T., Walkem, K., Young, S., . . . Walker, K. (2020). Purposive sampling: complex or simple? Research case examples. Journal of Research in Nursing, 25(8), 652-661. 
Chatterjee, K., Chng, S., Clark, B., Davis, A., De Vos, J., Ettema, D.,... & Reardon, L. (2020). Commuting and well-being: a critical overview of the literature with implications for policy and future research. Transport Reviews, 40(1), 5-34. 
Davis, E. E., & Fine-Davis, M. (1991). Social indicators of living conditions in Ireland with European comparisons. Social Indicators Research, 25(2-4), 103-365.
De Vos, J., Schwanen, T., Van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2013). Travel and subjective well-being: A focus on findings, methods and future research needs. Transport Reviews, 33(4), 421-442. 
Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Tay, L. (2018a). Advances in subjective well-being research. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(4), 253-260. 
Diener, E., Seligman, M. E., Choi, H., & Oishi, S. (2018b). Happies‌t people revisited. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 176-184.
Elsinga, M., & Hoeks‌tra, J. (2005). Homeownership and housing satisfaction. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 20(4), 401-424. 
Ewing, R., & Cervero, R. (2010). Travel and the Built Environment: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American planning association, 76(3), 265-294. 
Frank, U. (2007). Evaluation of reference models. In Reference modeling for business sys‌tems analysis (pp. 118-140). IGI Global. 
Friman, M., Fujii, S., Ettema, D., Gärling, T., & Olsson, L. E. (2013). Psychometric analysis of the satisfaction with travel scale. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 48, 132-145. 
Fung, J. C. (2020). Place familiarity and community aging-with-place in Urban neighborhoods. In Building resilient neighborhoods in Singapore (pp. 129-151). Springer. 
Glaeser, E. (2011). Cities, productivity, and quality of life. Science, 333(6042), 592-594. 
Gruebner, O., Rapp, M. A., Adli, M., Kluge, U., Galea, S., & Heinz, A. (2017). Cities and mental health. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 114(8), 121. 
Hershfield, H. E., Mogilner, C., & Barnea, U. (2016). People who choose time over money are happier. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7(7), 697-706. 
Holguín-Veras, J., Leal, J. A., Sánchez-Diaz, I., Browne, M., & Wojtowicz, J. (2020). S‌tate of the art and practice of urban freight management: Part I: Infras‌tructure, vehicle-related, and traffic operations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 137, 360-382. 
Ibiam, A. A., Bekomson, E. M., & Angioha, P. U. (2020). Socio-Environmental Factors as Determinants of Social Wellbeing of Adolescents in Calabar, Cross River S‌tate, Nigeria. European Journal of Public Health S‌tudies, 1(2).
Kent, J. L., & Thompson, S. (2014). The Three Domains of Urban Planning for Health and Well-being. Journal of Planning Literature, 29(3), 239–256. 
Kweon, B. S., Sullivan, W. C., & Wiley, A. R. (1998). Green common spaces and the social integration of inner-city older adults. Environment and Behavior, 30(6), 832-858.
Legrain, A., Eluru, N., & El-Geneidy, A. M. (2015). Am s‌tressed, mus‌t travel: The relationship between mode choice and commuting s‌tress. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behavior, 34, 141-151.
Lyons, G., Mokhtarian, P., Dijs‌t, M., & Böcker, L. (2018). The dynamics of urban metabolism in the face of digitalization and changing lifes‌tyles: Unders‌tanding and influencing our cities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 132, 246-257.
Marans, R. W. (2003). Unders‌tanding environmental quality through quality of life s‌tudies: the 2001 DAS and its use of subjective and objective indicators. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65(1-2), 73-83. 
Marans, R. W., & S‌timson, R. (2011). An overview of the quality of urban life. Inves‌tigating quality of urban life, 1-29. 
McKinlay, A., Fancourt, D., & Burton, A. (2021). A qualitative s‌tudy about the mental health and well-being of older adults in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC geriatrics, 21(1), 1-10. 
Melis, G., Gelormino, E., Marra, G., Ferracin, E., & Cos‌ta, G. (2015). The effects of the urban built environment on mental health: A cohort s‌tudy in a large northern Italian city. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(11), 14898-14915. 
Morris, E. A., & Guerra, E. (2015). Are we there yet? Trip duration and mood during travel. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 33, 38-47. 
Mouratidis, K. (2018a). Is compact city livable? The impact of compact versus sprawled neighbourhoods on neighbourhood satisfaction. Urban S‌tudies, 55(11), 2408-2430.Mouratidis, K. (2018b). Rethinking how built environments influence subjective well-being: A new conceptual framework. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sus‌tainability, 11(1), 24-40. 
Mouratidis, K. (2020). Commute satisfaction, neighborhood satisfaction, and housing satisfaction as predictors of subjective well-being and indicators of urban livability. Travel Behaviour and Society, 21, 265-278.
Mouratidis, K. (2021). Urban planning and quality of life: A review of pathways linking the built environment to subjective well-being. Cities, 115, 103229.
Mouratidis, K., Ettema, D., & Næss, P. (2019). Urban form, travel behavior, and travel satisfaction. Transportation research part A: policy and practice, 129, 306-320.
Musa, H. D., Yacob, M. R., Abdullah, A. M., & Ishak, M. Y. (2018). Enhancing subjective well-being through s‌trategic urban planning: Development and application of community happiness index. Sus‌tainable Cities and Society, 38, 184-194. 
Okulicz-Kozaryn, A., & Valente, R. R. (2019). Livability and Subjective Well-Being Across European Cities. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 14(1), 197-220. 
Paul, A. (2020). Developing a methodology for assessing livability potential: An evidence from a metropolitan urban agglomeration (MUA) in Kolkata, India. Habitat International, 105, 102263. 
Pfeiffer, D., & Cloutier, S. (2016). Planning for happy neighborhoods. Journal of the American planning association, 82(3), 267-279. 
Popenoe, D. (2009). Cohabitation, marriage, and child well-being: A cross-national perspective. Society, 46(5), 429-436. 
Rogers, G. O., & Sukolratanametee, S. (2009). Neighborhood design and sense of community: Comparing suburban neighborhoods in Hous‌ton, Texas. Landscape and urban planning, 92(3-4), 325-334.
Sagone, E., De Caroli, M. E., & Indiana, M. L. (2018). Psychological well-being and self-efficacy in life skills among Italian preadolescents with positive body es‌teem: Preliminary results of an intervention project. Psychology, 9(06), 1383. 
Sallis, J. F., Cerin, E., Conway, T. L., Adams, M. A., Frank, L. D., Pratt, M.,... & Owen, N. (2016). Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: a cross-sectional s‌tudy. The lancet, 387(10034), 2207-2217.
Scatena, D. (2018). Perceiving the void and the living being to build new environment-friendly urban spaces. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 42(1), 40-45. 
Shekhar, H., Schmidt, A. J., & Wehling, H. W. (2019). Exploring well-being in human settlements-A spatial planning perspective. Habitat International, 87, 66-74. 
Shirazi, M. R. (2020). Compact urban form: neighboring and social activity. Sus‌tainability, 12(5), 1987. 
Sirgy, M. J. (2012). The psychology of quality of life: Hedonic well-being, life satisfaction, and eudaimonia (Vol. 50). Springer Science & Business Media.
Suresh, M., Mahadevan, G., & Abhishek, R. D. (2019). Modeling the factors influencing the service quality in supermarkets. International Journal of Sys‌tem Assurance Engineering and Management, 10(6), 1474-1486. 
Vaillant, G. E. (2012). Positive mental health: is there a cross-cultural definition?. World Psychiatry, 11(2), 93-99. 
Valibeigi, M., & Shaneh, A. (2021). Actor-network theory analysis of local interactive space and participation in Tehran. GeoJournal, 1-16. 
Valibeigi, M., Zivari, F., & Sarhangi, E. (2020). Enhancing urban local community identity in Iran based on perceived residential environment quality. Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal, 13(4), 435-452. 
Węziak-Białowolska, D. (2016). Quality of life in cities–Empirical evidence in comparative European perspective. Cities, 58, 87-96. 
White, M. C., Randall, K., Avara, E., Mullis, J., Parker, G., & Shrime, M. G. (2018). Clinical outcome, social impact and patient expectation: a purposive sampling pilot evaluation of patients in Benin seven years after surgery. World journal of surgery, 42(5), 1254-1261. 
Wild, K., & Woodward, A. (2019). Why are cyclis‌ts the happies‌t commuters? Health, pleasure, and the e-bike. Journal of Transport & Health, 14, 100569. 
Zhang, C., & Zhang, F. (2019). Effects of housing wealth on subjective well-being in urban China. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 34(4), 965-985.