Document Type : Applied Article
Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture, Eslamabad-e-Gharb Branch, Islamic Azad University, Eslamabad-e Gharb, Iran.
Today city residents are experiencing a new way of life which is unprecedented ever since the urbanization concept appearance. The continuous demand to build and maintain the real city space with all the well-known problems, alongside the simultaneous management of urgency and the presence of a developing virtual parallel world, has baffled the city's management systems and city's residents. One of the proposed solutions is employing a machine approach to solve these related issues. The general purpose of this research is to provide a comprehensive definition of the concept of urban technology synthesis in the area of physical space as an urbanism machine. This investigation is a comparative study to allocate and provide a particular paradigm for the introduction of augmented reality instances utilizing matter and information combination via technology in urban spaces. After the semantic framework formulation of the mentioned concept, recognition of tools instances in the context of nowadays cities have been considered. In the process of this research, the phenomenon of augmented reality has been retrieved, with its definitions and capabilities as tools for the realization of technological synthesis in the context of current cities. Another result of this research is the introduction of some advantages in applying augmented reality in cities.
Arth, C., Grasset, R., Gruber, L., Langlotz, T., Mulloni, A., & Wagner, D. (2015). The history of mobile augmented reality. ArXiv, preprint arXiv: 1505.01319.
Ashton, K. (2009). That ‘internet of things’ thing. RFID Journal, 22 (7), 97-114.
Boyer, M. C. (1996). Cyber Cities: visual perception in the age of electronic communication. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
Carmigniani, J., Furht, B., Anisetti, M., Ceravolo, P., Damiani, E. & Ivkovic, M. (2011). Augmented reality technologies, systems, and applications. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 51 (1), 341-377.
Corbusier, L., & Eardley, A. (1973). The Athens Charter. New York: Grossman Publishers.
Dick, E. (2020). How to Address Privacy Questions Raised by the Expansion of Augmented Reality in Public Spaces. Washington: Information Technology and Innovation Foundation.
Foth, M. (Ed.). (2008). Handbook of research on urban informatics: the practice and promise of the real-time city: the practice and promise of the real-time city. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Foth, M., Choi, J. H. J., & Satchell, C. (2011). Urban informatics. Conference on Computer supported cooperative work. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer supported cooperative work. March 19-23, (pp.1-8). New York: Association for Computing Machinery.
Friedman, B., Borning, A., Davis, J. L., Gill, B. T., Kahn Jr, P. H., Kriplean, T., & Lin, P. (2008). Laying the foundations for public participation and value advocacy: Interaction design for a large-scale urban simulation. Conference on Digital government research. Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference. May 17-20, (pp. 305-314). Montreal: Digital Government Research Center.
Geroimenko, V. (2012). Augmented reality technology and art: The analysis and visualization of evolving conceptual models. International Conference on Information Visualization. Paper presented at the 16th International Conference on Information Visualization. July 11-13, (pp. 445-453). Montpellier: IEEE.
Graham, M., Zook, M., & Boulton, A. (2013). Augmented reality in urban places: contested content and the duplicity of code. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 38 (3), 464-479.
Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S. & Palaniswami, M., (2013). Internet of Things (IoT), a vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future generation computer systems, 29 (7), 1645-1660.
Habib, F. (2012). Urban Development Enquires. Tehran: Author
Hager, Rolf. (1966). the Zähringer New Towns, Department of Architecture. Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.
Lim, C. J. (2005). Devices. Oxford: Architectural Press Elsevier.
Manovich, L. (2001). The language of new media. Cambridge: MIT Press.
McLuhan, M. (2003). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Corte Madera, CA: Gingko Press.
Morris, A. E. J. (2013). History of urban form before the industrial revolution. London: Routledge.
Pakzad, J. (2010). History of European City from Greek Polis to Industrial Revolution. Tehran: Center of Excellence in Urban Design
Palumbo, M. L., (2000). New Wombs: Electronic Bodies and Architectural Disorders. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.
Ramos, F., Trilles, S., Torres-Sospedra, J., & Perales, F. J. (2018). New Trends in Using Augmented Reality Apps for Smart City Contexts. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 7 (12), 478-501.
Read, A., (2002). Architecturally speaking: practices of art, architecture and the everyday. London: Routledge.
Reitmayr, G., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Location-based applications for mobile augmented reality. Conference on User interfaces. Proceedings of the Fourth Australasian user interface on User interfaces. January 29th to February 1st, (pp.65-73). Adelaide: Australian Computer Society, Inc.
Sundmaeker, H., Guillemin, P., Friess, P. & Woelfflé, S., (2010). Vision and challenges for realising the Internet of Things. Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things, European Commission, 3 (3), 34-36.
UNFPA. State of World Population. (2007). Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. New York: United Nations Population Fund.
Zellner, P. (2000). Hybrid Space: New Forms in Digital Architecture. Kiribati: Thames & Hudson.
Ziaei, N. P.; Naghizadeh, M. & Mokhtabad, S. M. (2017). Retrieval of Models, Forming the Physical Structure of the City in Order to Explain the Concept of Urban Development Machine1. Bagh-E Nazar, 14 (52), 69-80.