Developing P.P.P Model of Place Attachment for Evaluating Residential Environment (Cases Study: Open Space of Iranzamin and Ekbatan Apartment Buildings)

Document Type : Original Paper


1 PhD. Candidate, Department Of Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor; Department of Art and Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Since the quality of apartment buildings is noted, the way of increasing attachment and discovering its effective variables is challenging subjects for researchers in this field. Person, place and process (P.P.P) model of place attachment as the most precise model of them, evaluate attachment to three parts of person, place and process. What is going to be studied in this research is to evaluate attachment of residents to the open space of such buildings. Then, identifying the effective variables and suggesting practical solutions to improve quality of such environment are the subsequent goals of this research. This is practical research with correlational cases study method.used for Ekbatan and Iran Zamin apartment buildings and SPSS is used to analyze data. The findings show that in both cases, attachment is in high degree while physical and social attachment in Iranzamin apartment building is more than Ekbatan. In addition physical attachment is more than social attachment in both cases. The results show that in personal dimensions, designers should pay attention to the expectations and variety of needs for different ages of residents. In place dimensions, type of territories, accessibility, and flexibility of spaces in designing open spaces are the key points for designers. In addition, the way these types of buildings are managed is so important in the process of place attachment that shows it is needed for their managers to have some special skills to respond to the mobility character of place attachment.


Azizi, M., & Rahmani, M. (2004). Perceived Residential Environment Quality for Low Income Stratum: Case Study: Mehr Apartment Buildings in Takestan. ,Soffe, 24(1), 61-74.
Devine-Wright, P. (2010). Disruption to place attachment and the protection of restorative environments: A wind energy case study. Journal of Environmental Psychology,2010(30), 271-280.
Fornara, F., Bonaiuto, M., & Bonnes, M. (2010). Cross-validation of Abbreviated Perceived Residential Environment Quality (PREQ) and Neighborhood Attachment (NA) indicators. Environment and Behavior, 42(2), 171-196.
Gehl, J. (2011). Life between buildings : using public space (Sixth Edition ed.). Washington: Island press.
Giuliani, M. V., Ferrara, F., & Barabotti, S. (2003). One attachment or more ,in: Moser, G. Pol, E. Bernard, Y. Bonnes, M. Corraliza, J. A. Giuliani (Eds), People, Places, and Sustainability: 21st Century Metropolis. Seattle: WA: Hogrefe and Huber, 111-122.
Hernández, B., Hidalgo, M. C., & Ruiz, C. (2015). Theoretical and methodological aspects of research on place attachment. London: Routledge.
Hernandez, B., Hidalgo, M. C., Salazar-Laplace, M. E., & Hess, S. (2007). Place attachment and place identity in natives and non-natives. Journal of Environmental Psychology,2007(27), 310-319.
Hidalgo, M. C., & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2001(21), 273-281.
Jalili, M., Einifar, A., & Talischi, G. (2012). Open Space and Environmental Response Case Study: Three Apartment Buildings in Hamedan. Honar-Ha-Ye Ziba Memari Va Shahrsazi, 4(18), 57-68.
Jorgensen, B. S., & Stedman, R. C. (2001). Sense of place as an attitude: Lakeshore owners attitudes toward their properties. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2001(21), 233-248.
Jorgensen, B. S., & Stedman, R. C. (2006). A comparative analysis of predictors ofsense of place dimensions: Attachment to, dependence on, and identification with lakeshore properties. Journal of Environmental Management, 2006(79), 316-327.
Knez, I. (2005). Attachment and identity as related to a place and its perceived climate. Journal of Environmental Psychology,2005(25), 207-218.
Lalli, M. (1992). Urban-related identity: Theory,measurement, and empirical findings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1992(12), 285-303.
Lewica, M. (2010). What makes neighborhood different from home and city? Effects of place scale on place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010(30), 35-51.
Lewica, M. (2011). place attachment: how far have we come in the last 40 years. journal of environmental psycology, 2011(31), 207-230.
Lewicka, M. (2014). Memory as Enabler of Place Attachment. USA and Canada: Routledge.
Low, S . M., & Altman, I. (1992). Place attachment: A conceptual inquiry (Vol. 12). New York: Plenum Press.
Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. London: Pion Limited.
Riger, S., Lavrakas, P. J. (1981). Community ties: Patterns of attachment and social interaction in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 9, PP. 55-66.
Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). Defining place attachment: A tripartite organizing framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2010(30), 1-10.
Seamon, D. (2012). Place, Place Identity, and Phenomenology: A Triadic Interpretation Based on J.G.Bennett’s Systematics (H. Casakin & F. Bernardo Eds.): Bentham e books.
Seamon, D. (2014). Place Attachment and Phenomenology: The Synergistic Dynamism of Place. USA and Canada: Routledge.
Stokols, D., & Shumaker, S. A. (1981). People in places: a transactional view of settings. Hillsdale: NJ: Erlbaum.
Tuan, Y.-F. (1977). Space and place: The perspective of experience. Minnesota: The University of Minnesota Press.
Williams, D. R., & Vaske, J. J. (2003). The measurement of place attachment: Validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach. Forest Science, 49(6), 830–840.