Improvement of Existing Public Office Buildings in Nigeria from Users’ Perspective Using Lean Thinking – A Pictorial View


1 Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

2 Professor, Faculty of Technology Management and Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, 86400 Johor, Malaysia.

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Technology Management and Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat, 86400 Johor, Malaysia.


This paper gives a pictorial view of the relevance of lean thinking, particularly the application
of muda as a supplement to the sustainable improvement diagnosis technique of existing public office buildings,
for a fuller assessment of users’ requirement in Nigeria. The impact of perceived muda was related to the triple
bottom line of sustainable development on perceived job productivity and design features and estimated from endusers’
perspective, using diagnostic POE as data acquiring tool, while the confirmatory analysis was done through
AMOS, SPSS and MS Excel to explain the relationship between the different variables. The findings showed that
muda is inherent in public office buildings and it has highly significant causal effects of 0.66 and 0.76 respectively
on perceived job productivity and design features; it also has strong effect sizes of 44% and 58% in explaining both
their variances respectively. The result revealed that users require more improvement in facilities as against spatial
plan and structures, while there is a medium and positive correlation of 0.48 between perceived job productivity and
design features – implying that improvement in design features will consequently lead to improvement in perceived
job productivity. The study concludes that lean thinking is relevant to building improvement and could serve as good
supplement to the current improvement diagnosis of existing public office buildings, but not as a substitute since
data were only collected from users who are not able to provide the required technical data that would otherwise
warrant use of equipment.


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