Climatic Building Envelope Employed in Vernacular Residential Architecture in Golestan-Iran

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and urban planing, Islamic Azad University of Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Candidate in Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and urban planing, Qazvin Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.c


Climate is one of the many factors such as socio-cultural values, economics, materials,
administrative factors and technology that influence architectural forms. The climatic solutions effecting on architecture,
differ in various regions, cultures, time and technology. The climate of the province of Golestan plays an active role
in the formation and diversity of vernacular dwellings. This region is in contact with numerous environmental factors.
It is limited by Alborz Mountain in the south, by Turkmenistan desert in the north-east, and by Caspian Sea in the
north-west bringing about high humidity in this province. With this background, the paper's question raised: "How
do the climatic design principles of vernacular architecture respond to microclimates in this region?" In this paper,
the focus is on building's envelopes and shells in three local climatic scopes of the region. The paper is based on a
combination of research methodologies: field research (integrating case studies) and archival research. The climatic
data are being analyzed by Mahoney tables providing preliminary design recommendations. They are grouped under
eight headings: layout, spacing, ventilation, openings (size, position and protection), the relation between building
and ground, veranda, wall and roof. This essay argues about the knowledge and skill of vernacular and traditional
bioclimatic construction suggesting conceptual strategies for improve current dwelling aiming to a sustainable future.