A Critique of Modern Shohada Square Based on the Principels of Islamic Iranian Urbanism


M.A., Department of Art & Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Squares as urban spaces are the arena for people formed by physical proportions and variety of
functions such as religious, commercial, cultural, etc. Shohada square as a focal point in Mashhad , is one of the
main arteries of access to Holly shrine of Imam Reza and makes access to utilities and major axes . According to
the former urban pattern and its position in the traditional context of surrounding neighborhoods, access to the Holy
shrine plays the memorial and historical role, that presents a very important position of the square. This paper clearly
states that Esfahan school characteristics such as unity, diversity and balance, are an appropriate pattern for design
and evaluation of urban spaces that can be used for reconstruction of old squares on historical context. The results
showed that this pattern does not comply fully with Shohada square and modern architecture is visible in it. Also,
serious damage has struck to the identity of the Shohada square by physical transformation with absolutely modern
pattern after neglect of strong position of relation between Razavi shrine and Shohada square and religious traditional
context and history. Egregious physical duality of new


Abbaszadegan, M. (2004). Attitude of the urban –Architecture modern movement to urban spaces. Shahrdariha Monthly. 67, 39. 
Ebrahimi, M. H. (2009). Square, undefined spaces in Iranian cities. Hoviatshahr. 4.107-120
Executive management plan of Shohada square. (2011) . Revision of  Special plan of  Shohada square. Hasht Abad and Saheb alzaman Axis. (second edition Summary).  variated
Habibi, M. (1999). Isfahan urbanism School. Honar-Ha-ye-Ziba. 4, 48-53.   
Lotfi, S. (2004). Take the experience of modernity in city  and contemporary urbanism. Honar-Ha-ye-Ziba. 20, 17-26.    
Mahdavi, M. (2010).  Isfahan school in urbanism. Social science monthly. 36, 80-91.  
Mohammadzadeh, R., Jamali, F., & Pourmohammadi, M.R. (2005). The role of modern urbanism in pedestrian traffic Infractions of  Tabriz Old tissue. Honar-Ha-ye-Ziba. 21(21),17-26 .      
Montgomery, J. (1998). Making a city: Urbanity, vitality and urban design. Journal of urban Design.  3(1), 93-116.
Naghizadeh, M. (2006). Theoretical basics and Islamic  urbanism  Architecture. Tehran: Shahidi Publications.
Pakzad, G. (2012). Design Guidelines ofurban spacesinIran. Tehran: Shahidi Publications.
Sayeedi Rezvani, H., Nourian, F. (2009).  Readout of justice in the Country urban plans implementation  of  Shohada Square Sampel in Mashhad.  Human Geography Research, 68, 85-102.
Shahriyari, S.K. (2001). modernity in  Islamic urbanism. Architectural and urbanism. 62-63,55 .
Tabibian, M., Charbgoo, N., Abdollahi Mehr, A. (2011). Hierarchy principle Reflect in Islamic Iranian cities. Armanshahr. 4(7), 63-76.  

Yazdanfar, A., Ghaemmaghami,S., Ahmadpour, p. (2013). Applying design idea to ptomote security of urban space. International  Journal of Architecture and Urban Development. 4(1),51-56.