Investigating of Residents Empowering in Physical and Environmental Improvements in Informal Settlements (Case Study: Nodeh Community, Mashhad, Iran)

Document Type: Methodologies

Authors

1 M.A.. Faculty of Art and Architecture, International University of Imam Reza, Mashahd, Iran.

2 Assistant professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is investigating the impacts of residents empowering in physical and environmental improvements in informal settlements. This place has some problems such as safety, health and environmental that Managers and municipal authorities should take action to fix them. In this regard The NGOs as an intermediary between the people and town officials could have a significant role in solving these problems by the participation of residents."Hamyaran" private institution as a N.G.O. organization decide to implement a project with a partnership approach to empower there that called "Sustainable Development Plan in Informal Settlements”. This project is one of four design pattern in the institution which is trying to create safe and sustainable spaces with using public participation and local authorities in a decentralizing approach and an institutional development. Methodology of this research is descriptive – analytical. Objectives were questioned by questionnaire from people. Although the project for reasons such as changing in government policies and local authorities did not achieve all of goals, But succeeded in reducing crime rates in urban areas through the creation of attractive spaces, organizing urban centers and creating local institutions. The strategies employed in this neighborhood have the ability to refer to similar samples in Metropolises of Asia.

Keywords


Andrews, R., Cowell, R., Downe, J., Martin, S., & Turner, D. (2006). Promoting Effective Citizenship and Community Empowerment: A Guide for Local Authorities on Enhancing Capacity for Public Participation. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.

Baum, F. (2008). The Commission on the Social Determinants of Health: reinventing health promotion for the twenty-first century. Critical Public Health, 18(4), 457-466.

Blundell-Jones, P., Petrescu, D., & Till, J. (2005). Architecture and Participation. Taylor & Francis.

Durand-Lasserve, A. (2006). Informal settlements and the Millennium Development Goals: global policy debates on property ownership and security of tenure. Global Urban Development, 2(1), 1-15.

Faga, B. (2006). Designing Public Consensus: The Civic Theater of Community Participation for Architects, Landscape Architects, Planners, and Urban Designers. New Jersey: Wiley.

Gehl, J., Gemzoe, L., Kirknaes, S., & Sondergaard, B. S. (2006). New City Life. Copenhagen, Copenhagen: The Danish Architecture Press.

Khalifa, M. A. (2013). Evolution of Informal Settlements Upgrading Strategies in Egypt: From Negligence to Participatory Development. Democratic Transition and Sustainable Communities, 1.

Krogstrup, H. K. (1997). User Participation in Quality Assessment A Dialogue and Learning Oriented Evaluation Method. Evaluation, 3(2), 205-224.

Laverack, G., & Labonte, R. (2008). Health promotion in action: from local to global empowerment. Palgrave: Macmillan.

Lyons, M., Smuts, C., & Stephens, A. (2001). Participation, empowerment and sustainability: (How) do the links work?. Urban studies, 38(8), 1233-1251.

Marschall, S. (1998). Architecture as Empowerment: The Participatory Approach in Contemporary Architecture in South Africa. Transformation,(35),103-123.

Mashhad,(2014). Retrieved 2 September, 2014, from  http://zone2.mashhad.ir/portal_content.

Stenberg, J. (2004). Planning in interplace? On time, power and learning in local activities aiming at social inclusion and sustainable development. Chalmers University of Technology.

Stewart, M., & Taylor, M. (1995). Empowerment and estate regeneration: A critical review. Policy Press

Swyngedouw, E. (2005). Governance innovation and the citizen: the Janus face of governance-beyond-the-state. Urban studies, 42(11), 1991-2006.

Waisbord, S. (2005). Five key ideas: coincidences and challenges in development communication. Media and glocal change. Rethinking communication for development, 77-90.