An Investigation to Physical Aspects of Middle Area in Squares as a Useful Indicator for Designing Community-Oriented Urban Plazas (Case Study: Italian Piazzas of Campidoglio in Rome, Del Campo in Siena and San Marco in Venice)

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.


Middle of squares, one of the components of physical aspect is considered as an appropriate
indicator in designing successful urban squares, which consequently promotes visual quality. The present study aims to
determine how the above mentioned aspect was presented in the Middle-Ages and Renaissance within Italian squares.
Considering the aim of the investigation, library studies as well as visual documentations, with a historical-descriptive
approach were applied in studying Italian community-oriented squares, Campo located in Siena, Del Campidoglio
in Rome and San Marco in Venice. Results showed that, urban designers have employed some indicators, including
physical aspect and its factors such as proportions, shape, surface design, materials, colors and topography in order to
promote aesthetic-visual qualities, as well as human scale and unity of space to successfully design attractive middles
in squares. These all, efficiently influence users’ presence, pause, movement type and trend, direction, speed and even
their behavior. Accordingly, considering the mentioned aspect is of great importance in designing future squares.


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