Typology of Earth-shelter Architecture in Iran

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D., Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor, School of Architecture and Urban Studies, University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Earth-Shelter construction is one of the aspects in architecture where the thermal mass of the earth behind the outer walls are applied in order to reduce heat loss and keep the internal temperature at human comfort range. In case of earth-shelter buildings, housing is especially important. As for its applicability the earth-shelter provides good housing. Typological studies of earth-shelter construction in Iran by introduces various Iranian examples of this type, could be a model for the today’s innovative designs with an approach to energy saving. This type of construction responded to human comfort requirements when modernism was absent to claim that it could do the same through mechanical technology. The study method adopted here consists of qualitative-descriptive and deductive analyses. The categories of earth-shelter architecture are three worldwide: Earth Mound, Rocky or In-Hill and Bellow ground. Here the genotype of earth architecture and phenotype of earth-shelter are studied in details. The same is of two in Iran: Rocky, which is divided in continues and discontinues types and closed underground type. Studies conducted in Iran have revealed a new type of these structures named Combined Continues Rocky open Underground by the author.

Keywords