Rural Growth and Decay: Analysis of Physical-Spatial Transformation of Rural Area in Iran (Case Staudy: Kahak Area of Qom Province)

Document Type: Original Paper

Authors

1 Professor , Center for Rural Design, University of Minnesota, United States of America.

2 Departman urban planning, Faculty of Art and architecture, University of Kurdistan, Sanndaj, Iran.

3 Department of Geography and rural planning, Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Human settlements experience continual change. In recent years, many rural areas have experienced dispersed grow (rural sprawl) and population declines in traditional village centers (Hollowing). These paradoxical phenomena have occurred in most developing countries, including rural Iran. This study examines this phenomena in three Iranian villages of Kahak area of Qom province, and develops a model that can help predict how these trends will occur in the future. This study randomly selected 138 household for analysis. It analyzed eight variables that affect village development, including heritage, rural- urban migration, households’ structure changes, land price, quality of buildings, and geometrical shape of village. findings indicate that inheritance and migration variables have the highest influence on settlement transformation. Based on this analysis, it is predicted that among the there villages, Veshnave and Khurabad will maintain balanced population, but Abarjis will experience hollowing and decay.

Keywords


Anbestani, A.A., (2009). Evalution of physical impacts of second home on rural settelemnt development. Journal of Rural and development, 12: 149-166.

Angel, S., Parent, J., Civco, D.L., Blei, A., & Potere, D., (2011). The dimensions of global urban expansion: Estimates and projections for all countries, 2000–2050. Progress in Planning, 75: 53–107.

Bhatta, B., Saraswati, S., &Bandyopadhyay, D., (2013). Urban sprawl measurement from remote sensing data. Applied Geography, 30: 731–740.

Engle, N., (2011). Understanding Rural Sprawl: A Look at Osceola County, Michigan, SPNHA Review,6: 1-14.

Farber, S., &Li,X., (2013). Urban sprawl and social interaction potential: an empirical analysis of large metropolitan regions in the United States. Journal of Transport(In Press) Geography. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2013.03.002.

Ferreira, J. A., &Condessa, B., (2012). Defining expansion areas in small urban settlements – An application to the municipality of Tomar (Portugal). Landscape and Urban Planning, 107: 283– 292.

Freeman, T., Schoney, R., &Nolan, J., (2013).  Man vs. manure: Examining the effects of residential demand on dairy farming in rural America. Agricultural Systems, 115:129–136.

Gude, P.H., Hansen, A.J. Rasker, R., &Maxwell, B., (2006). Rates and drivers of rural residential development in the Greater Yellowstone. Landscape and Urban Planning, 77: 131–151.

Habibpour, K., & Safari H. R., (2011). A comprehensive guide to use Spss survey researches. Motefakkeran Publications. fourth edition, Tehran.

Hasanimeher, S.S., &Shahoor, H., (2010). Consequences of tourism development in Heiran District with emphasis on land use change during 2006-2009. Human Geography 3: 177-193.

Hu, S., Yansui, L., &Keshuai, X., (2011). Hollow Villages and Rural Restructuring in Major Rural Regions of China: A Case Study of Yucheng City, Shandong Province. Chinese Geographical Science,21: 354–363.

Isalou, A.A., Bayat, M.,Bahrami,A., (2013). The notion of livability new approach to improvement quality of life in rural communities- Case study: Kahak District. Journal of Housing and Rural Environment. In press (Persian).

Jie-yong, W., Yan-sui, L., &Yang-fen. C., (2013).Empirical Analysis on Influencing Factors of the Hollowing Village Degree—Based on the Survey Data of Sample Villages in Shandong Province [J]. Journal of natural resources, 28: 10-18.

Jokar Arsanjani ,J., Helbich, M.,Kainz, W., &Darvishi Boloorani, A. (2011), Integration  of  logistic  regression,  Markov  chain  and  cellular  automatamodels to simulate urban expansion, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation,21 , 265–275.

Lee,S., &Dan,N.T., (2005). Probabilistic landslide susceptibility mapping in the Lai Chau province of Vietnam: focus on the relationship between tectonic fractures and landslides. Environmental Geology, 778:48-787.

Liu, Y.S., Liu, Y., &Zhai, R.X., (2009). Geographical research and optimizing practice of rural hollowing in China. Acta Geographical Sinica 64: 1193–1202.

Long, H., Li, Y., Liua, Y., Woodsd, M., &Zoua, J., (2012).Accelerated restructuring in rural China fueled by increasing vs. decreasing balance land-use policy for dealing with hollowed villages. Land Use Policy, 29:11– 22.

Long, H., Zou, J., Pykett, J., &Li, Y., (2011). Analysis of rural transformation development in China since the turn of the new millennium. Applied Geography, 31:1094-1105.

MacDonalda, K., &Rudelb, K.T., (2005). Sprawl and forest cover: what is the relationship? Applied Geography, 25: 67–79.

Mann, S., (2009). Institutional causes of urban and rural sprawl in Switzerland. Land Use Policy, 26: 919–924.

McCullagh, P., & Nelder, J., (1989). Generalized Linear Models. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Ohlmacher, C.G., & Davis, C.J., (2003). Using multiple regression and GIS technology topredict landslide hazard in northeast Kansas, USA. Engineering Geology, 69: 331-343.

Ozdemir. A., (2011). Using a binary logistic regression method and GIS for evaluating and mapping The groundwater spring potential in the Sultan Mountains (Aksehir, Turkey(. Journal of Hydrology, 450:123–136.

Salvati, L., Munafoc, M., Morellic, V.G.,& Sabbi, A., (2012). Low-density settlements and land use changes in a Mediterranean urban region. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105: 43– 52.

Su, S., Jiang, Z., Zhang, Q., &Zhang, Y., (2011). Transformation of agricultural landscapes under rapid urbanization: A threat to sustainability in Hang-Jia-Hu region, China. Applied Geography, 31: 439-449.

Su, S., Zhang, Q., Zhang, Z., Zhi, J.,& Wu, J., (2011). Rural settlement expansion and paddy soil loss across an ex-urbanizing watershed in eastern coastal China during market transition. Regional Environmental Change,11:651–662.

 Xi, F., He, H. S., Clarke, K.C. Hu, Y., Wu, X., Liu, M., Shi, T., Geng, Y., &Gao, C., (2012). The potential impacts of sprawl on farmland in Northeast China—evaluating a new strategy for rural development. Landscape and Urban Planning, 104: 34– 46.

Yansui, L., Yu, L., Yangfen, C., &Hualou, L., (2010). The process and driving forces of rural hollowing in China under rapid urbanization. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 20: 876-888.