Elimination of Waste and Inefficient Facilities in Existing Buildings for Sustainability in Developing Nations

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Real Estate and Facilities Management ,Faculty of Technology Management and Business, University Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Real Estate and Facilities Management ,Faculty of Technology Management and Business, University Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.


A major reason why many developing nations have not made significant advancement in sustainable development (SD) agenda is the neglect of existing building stock which forms the bulk of built assets. Although sustainable development is a universal challenge, it cannot be approached in the same way for all nations, but rather practical response can be defined nationally or locally. This paper reviewed literature into the possibility of using an improvement strategy model to eliminate waste and inefficient facilities in existing buildings from occupants and property managers’ view points for sustainability in developing nations using Nigeria as an example while emphasis is placed on the multi-stakeholder/interdisciplinary approach in which each professional in the built environment add discipline-specific data to a single shared model. Many writers have criticized the ignorance of end-user requirements during the construction briefing, highlighting the communications gap between the end-users, designers and owners, and that little had since improved. This paper suggests a way forward in which “bottom-up” improvement policy formulation and subsequent implementation would stem from occupants and property managers rather than “top-down” governance approach in most developing countries. The concepts of lean thinking, zero emission and green building were incorporated into the Building Information Modeling to develop an improvement strategy model for existing buildings with the condition that the use is retained. It is envisaged that improvement would be cheaper financial-wise than to demolish and rebuild; environmental friendly; and bring about an appreciably reduced maintenance cost.


Abley, I. &Heartfield, J. (2001), Sustaining Architecture in the Anti-machine Age.Chichester: Wiley-Academy.

Advanced English Dictionary (AED). (2013).apps.microsoft.com/.../advanced-english-dictionary/3206ef20-ac28-400...

Alufohai, A. J. (2012). Adoption of BIM and Nigeria’s Quest for Project Cost Management.. Knowing to Manage the Territory, Protect the Environment, Evaluate the Cultural Heritage. Rome. FIG Working Week 2012. pp. 1–7.

Belo, M.A., Agbatekwe A.C. (2006). Project Management in Property Development. The Nigerian Experience. 2nd ed. Ibadan: University Press Plc.

Black, J. (2008), Lean Production: Implementing a World-Class System, Industrial Press, Inc., New York.

Brandon, P. (2012). Sustainable Development: Ignorance is Fatal – What Don’t We Know? Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 1(1), pp. 14–28.

Bullen, P.A. (2007). Adaptive Reuse and Sustainability of Commercial Buildings. Facilities. 25, pp. 20-31.

Bullen, P. A. & Love, P.E.D. (2010). The Rhetoric of Adaptive Reuse or Reality of Demolition: Views from the Field. Cities. 27(4), pp. 215-224.

Bullen, P. A., & Love, P. (2011). A New Future for the Past: A Model for Adaptive Reuse Decision-Making. Built Environment Project and Asset Management. 1(1), 32–44.

Dahlgaard, J. J., & Dahlgaard-Park, S. M. (2006). Lean Production, Six Sigma Quality, TQM and Company Culture. The TQM Magazine. 18(3), pp. 263–281.

Douglas, J. (2006a). Building Retrofit. London: Butterworth Heinemann.

Douglas, J. (2006b). Building Adaptation. Burlington: Butterworth Heinemann.

Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. & Liston, K. (2008). BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Ellison, L. & Sayce, S. (2007). Establishing Sustainability Criteria Relevant for the Commercial Property Investment Sector. Property Management. 25(3), pp. 287-304.

Gilmour, D., & Banks, L. (2011). Sustainable development indicators for major infrastructure projects. Municipal Engineer, 164(ME1), pp. 15–24.

Gohardani, N. & Bjork, F. (2012). Sustainable Refurbishment in Building Technology. Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 1(3), pp. 241–252.

Griggs, N. S. (1998). Infrastructure Engineering and Management. New York. John Wiley & Sons.

Gunter, P. (1998). Upsizing: Road to Zero Emission. Sheffield. Greenleaf Publishing.

Hartshorn, J., Maher, M., Crooks, J., Stahl, R. and Bond, Z. (2005). Creative Destruction: Building toward Sustainability. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.  32, pp. 170-180.

Hui, E. C. M., & Lau, O. M. F. (2011). Viability of Building Rehabilitation with Real Option Approaches: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong. Facilities. 29(11/12), pp. 485–498.

Hui, E. C. M., Wong, J. T. Y., & Wan, J. K. M. (2008). The Evidence of Value Enhancement Resulting from Rehabilitation. Facilities. 26(1/2), pp. 16–32.

Huthwaite, B. (2007). The Lean Design Solution: A Practical Guide to Streamlining Product Design and Development. Milwaukee: Quality Press.

Itard, L. & Klunder, G. (2007). Comparing Environmental Impacts of Renovated Housing Stock with New Construction. Building Research and Information. 35(3), pp. 252-267.

Jiboye, A. D. (2009) The Challenges of Sustainable Housing and Urban Development in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Research and Policies. 4 (3), pp. 23-27.

Jiboye, A. D. (2011). Sustainable Urbanization: Issues and Challenges for Effective Urban Governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(6), pp. 211–225.

Johnson, T., Davis, K, & Shapiro, E. (2005). Modern Methods of Valuation. 9th Edition. London: Estate Gazette Ltd.

Jørgensen, B., & Emmitt, S. (2009). Investigating the Integration of Design and Construction from a “Lean” Perspective Processes. Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management. 9(2), pp. 225–240.

Kaya, S. (2004). Relating Building Attributes to End-user’s Needs: “The Owners-Designers-End-users” Equation. Facilities. 22(9/10), pp. 247–252.

Kincaid, D. (2002). Adapting Buildings for Changing Uses: Guidelines for Change of Use Refurbishment. London: Spon Press.

Kozlowski, D. (2003). Green Gains: Where Sustainable Design Stands Now. Building Operating Management, 50 (7), pp. 26-32.

Lee, Y.J. and Huang, C.M. (2007). Sustainability Index for Taipei. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 27(6), pp. 505-21.

Love, P.E.D. & Bullen, P.A. (2009). Toward the Sustainable Adaption of Existing Facilities. Facilities. 27(9), pp. 357-367.

Ma, Z., Cooper, P., Daly, D., & Ledo, L. (2012). Existing Building Retrofits: Methodology and State-of-the-Art. Energy and Buildings, 55, 889–902.

Mansfield, J.R. (2002). What’s In a Name? Complexities in the Definition of ‘Refurbishment’. Property Management. 20(1), pp. 23-30.

Mansfield, J. R. (2009). Sustainable Refurbishment: The Potential of the Legacy Stock in the UK Commercial Real Estate Sector. Structural Survey. 27(4), pp. 274–286.

Mansfield, J. R. (2011). Sustainable Refurbishment: Some Practical Regulatory Hurdles. Structural Survey. 29(2), pp. 120–132.

Mansfield, J.R. (2012). Re-imagining Existing Architecture: Reflections on Refurbishment in the Age of Sustainability. Structural Survey. 30(4), pp. 344–356.

Miller, E., & Buys, L. (2008). Retrofitting Commercial Office Buildings for Sustainability: Tenants’ Perspectives. Property Investment & Finance. 26(6), pp. 552–561.

Mliczynska-Hajda D. (2007). Revitalisation of Polish Cities and Towns – The Needs, Forecasts, and Prospects. Conference on: Revitalisation of Urban Centres – Architecture, Structure, Economy – Review of the Existing Output & Future Prospects. Czestochowa: Poland Revitalization Forum Association, pp. 1-4.

Nawawi, A. H., & Khalil, N. (2008). Post-Occupancy Evaluation Correlated with Building Occupants’ Satisfaction: An approach to Performance Evaluation of Government and Public Buildings. Journal of Building Appraisal. 4(2), pp. 59–69.

Nicholas, J. & Soni, A. (2006). The Portal to Lean Production: Principles and Practices for Doing More with Less (p. 323). Boca Raton: Auerbach Publication.

Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota production system: beyond large-scale production. Productivity press.


Okojie G. (2013, June 9). Tackling Infrastructural Decay in Nigeria. Leadership Sunday Newspaper: http://leadership.com.ng/news/090613 last viewed 13/06/2013.

Pezzey, J. (1989). Economic Analysis of Sustainable Growth and Sustainable Development: Environment Department Working Paper No 15. Washington D.C.: World Bank.

Power, A. (2008). Does Demolition or Refurbishment of Old and Inefficient Homes Help to Increase our Environmental, Social and Economic Viability? Energy Policy. 36(12), pp. 4487-501.

Rana, M. M. P. (2009). Sustainable City in the Global North and South: Goal or Principle? Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal. 20(5), pp. 506–521.

Rey, E. (2004). Office Building Retrofitting Strategies: Multicriteria Approach of an Architectural and Technical Issue. Energy and Buildings. 36(4), pp. 367–372.

Schwede, D. A., Davies, H., & Purdey, B. (2008). Occupant Satisfaction with Workplace Design in New and Old Environments. Facilities, 26(7/8), pp. 273–288.

Scott, F. (2008), On Altering Architecture. London, Routledge.

Shah, S. (2007). Sustainable Practice for the Facilities Manager. Oxford. Blackwell Publishing.

Shika, S. A., Sapri, M., Jibril, J. D., Sipan, I., & Abdullah, S. (2012). Developing Post Occupancy Evaluation Sustainability Assessment Framework for Retrofitting Commercial Office Buildings: A Proposal. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 65(ICIBSoS), pp. 644–649.

Shipley, R., Utz, S. & Parsons, M. (2006), Does Adaptive Reuse Pay? A Study of the Business of Building Renovation in Ontario, Canada. International Journal of Heritage Studies. 12(6), pp. 505-20.

Shrestha, H. D., Yatabe, R., Bhandary, N. P., & Subedi, J. (2012). Vulnerability Assessment and Retrofitting of Existing School Buildings: A Case Study of Aceh. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment. 3(1), pp. 52–65.

Speckelmeyer, K.F. (1993), Office Relocation and Environmental Change: A Case Study. Environment and Behavior. 25(2), pp. 181-204.

Stone, S. (2005). Re-readings: The Design Principles of Remodelling Existing Buildings. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment. 83(1), pp. 125–134.

Strzelecka, E. (2008). Urban Development versus Sustainable Development in Poland. Management of Environmental Quality.19(2), pp. 243–252.

Suzuki H, Dastur A, Moffatt S, Yabuki N, & Maruyama H. (2010). Eco2 Cities: Ecological Cities as Economic Cities. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Teo, E. A. L., & Lin, G. (2011). Determination of Strategic Adaptation Actions for Public Housing in Singapore. Building and Environment. 46(7), pp. 1480–1488.

Wang, J. X. (2011). Lean Manufacturing: Bottom-Line Based (p. 269). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Wang, W., Lee, A. H. I., Peng, L., & Wu, Z. (2013). An Integrated Decision Making Model for District Revitalization and Regeneration Project Selection. Decision Support Systems. 54(2), pp. 1092–1103.

Watson , C . (2003). Review of Building Quality using Post Occupancy Evaluation. Journal of Programme Education Building. 35, pp. 1–5.

Wilkinson, S. (2012). Analysing Sustainable Retrofit Potential in Premium Office Buildings. Structural Survey. 30(5), pp. 398–410.

Wikipedia. (2011). Retrieved from  www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building, 2011 ,16th July, 2013.


Womack, J.P., Jones, D.T. and Roos, D. (1990). The Machine that Changed the World. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International.

Womack, J. and Jones, D. (1996). Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Organisation. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Wood, B. (2006). The Role of Existing Buildings in the Sustainability Agenda. Facilities. 24(1/2), pp. 61–67.

Wood, B., & Muncaster, M. (2012). Adapting From glorious past to uncertain future. Structural Survey, 30(3), 219–231.

World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


WSP Group. (2013). Retrieved from www.wspgroup.com/upload/BIM_map1.gif, 17th July, 2013.

Yiu, C.Y., Wong, S. K., & Yau, Y. (2006). Property Management as Property Rights Governance: Exclusion and Internal Conflict Resolution. Property Management. 24(2), pp. 87–97.

 Zero Emissions Research Initiative (ZERI). (2013). Retrieved fromwww.zeri.org 12th June, 2013.