Investigation of the Effect of Urban Public Spaces on Human Behavior (Case study: Vali Asr s.t in Tehran)

Document Type: Review paper

Authors

1 Abshar Street.

2 Professor of Science and research branch of Islamic Azad University

3 Department of Architecture, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

Abstract

This Study has discussed the meaning of public space and has shown that public spaces are an essential part of people’s lives. It has also identified the key urban design and architectural ideologies that have influenced the shape of the built environment, and has discussed how each has perceived the value of public spaces. In the following provides an overview of the relationship between people’s behavior and experience of public spaces, from an environmental psychology perspective. Methodologies adopted for the study. A combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods of collecting data has been used. The purpose of this study is to explore how public spaces influence human behavior in order to gain an appreciation of the significant role that public spaces play in the daily lives of people. This Study has established that human behavior and experience of public spaces can be influenced by the physical and ambient features of the built environment. It has been identified that physical features may include buildings, streets, landscaping, land forms and architectural elements, and ambient features may include sound, smell, temperature and illumination. It has also been identified that other factors such as age, gender, culture and ethnicity are also capable of affecting the way people respond to the environment. In addition to identifying the perspectives of the users of public spaces through the focus group, the study also identified the role and perspectives of urban planners and consultant designers. These built environment professionals have a significant role in shaping public spaces.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Beattie, N., & Lehmann, G. (1994). ‘Special Places: The Nature of Urban Space and its Significance’ In Johnson, L. C. (Ed.), Suburban Dreaming: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Australian Cities. Melbourne: Deakin University Press.
Bell, P.A.; & Greene, T.C.; & Fisher, J. D. & Baum, A. (1996). Environmental Psychology. (4th Ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Berger, J. (1973). Ways of Seeing. London: Penguin Books.
Canter, D., & Stringer, P. (1975). Environmental Interaction: Psychological Approaches to our Physical Surroundings. London: Surrey University Press.
Canter, D. (1977). The Psychology of Place. London: The Architectural Press.
Carr, S.; & Francis, M.; & Rivlin, L.G. & Andrew, M. (1992). Public Space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Engwicht, D. (1999). Street Reclaiming: Creating Liveable Streets and Vibrant Communities. Sydney: Pluto Press.
French, J. S. (1978). Urban Space: A Brief History of the City Square. Iowa: Kendall Hunt.
Gifford, R. (2002). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice. (3rd Ed.). Canada: Optimal Books.
Insel, P. M., & Lindgren, H. C. (1978). Too close for comfort: The psychology of crowding. Prentice-Hall.
Jakle, J. A. & Brunn, S. & Roseman, C. (1976). Human Spatial Behaviour: A Social Geography. Massachusetts: Duxbury Press.
Lang, J. (1991). Design Theory from an Environment and Behaviour Perspective In Zube, E. H. and Moore, G.T. (Ed.), Advances in Environment, Behaviour and Design, (Vol. 3). New York: Plenum Press.
Lawrence, R. J. (1989). Structuralist Theories in Environment-Behaviour-Design Research In Zube, E. H. and Moore, G. T. (Ed.), Advances in Environment, Behaviour and Design, (Vol. 2). New York: Plenum Press.
Low, S. M. (1987). Developments in Research Design, Data Collection and Analysis: Qualitative Methods In Zube, E. H and Moore, G. T. (Ed.), Advances in Environment, Behaviour and Design, (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum Press.
Mac, A.; & Francis. T. (1993). Environmental Psychology. California: Brooks/Cole.
Madanipour, A. (2003). Why Are the Design and Development of Public Spaces Significant for Cities?  In Alexander R. (Ed.), Designing Cities: Critical Readings in Urban Design. Melbourne: Blackwell Publishing.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological review. 50(4), 370.
Mehrabian, A., & Russel, J. A. (1974). An Approach to Environmental Psychology. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Middlemist, R. D., & Knowles, E. S. & Matter, C. F. (1976). ‘Personal Space Invasions in the Lavatory: Suggestive evidence for arousal’. Personality and Social Psychology. 33( 5), 541-546.
Mossop, E. & Walton, P. (2001). (Ed). City Spaces: Art and Design. St Leonards: Craftsman House.
Pomeranz, D. (1980). ‘Environmental Psychology’. In Krasner, L. (Ed.). Environmental Design and Human Behaviour: A Psychology of the Individual in Society. Sydney: Pergamon Press.
Speller, G. (2006). ‘A Place of my Own’ in Green Places. Issue 26, March 2006, pp. 18-20.
Veitch, R. & Arkkelin, D. (1995). Environmental Psychology: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Whyte, W. H. (1988). City: Rediscovering the Center. New York: Doubleday.
Winett, R. A. (1987). ‘Empiricist-Positivist Theories of Environment and Behaviour: New Directions for Multilevel Frameworks’. In Zube, E. H., & Moore, Ga, T. (Ed.), Advances in Environment, Behaviour and Design, (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum Press.
Winikoff, T. (2000). (Ed).  Places Not Spaces: Placemaking in Australia. Sydney: Envirobook Publishing.
Zube, E., & Moore, G. T. (1987). (Ed). Advances in Environment, Behaviour and Design, (Vol. 1). New York: Plenum Press.
Cousseran, A. (2006). Urban design futures. Routledge.