Drivers of Gated Community developments in Urban Areas: The Case of Nairobi, Kenya

Authors

1 KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

2 Ph.D., Proferssor, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract

Higher and middle income residents in Nairobi, Kenya have demonstrated a great craving for
gated community housing. The phenomenon is manifested in all forms of residential property advertisements and
in most new residential developments. The objective of this paper is to establish the drivers of the gated community
developments in Nairobi County by identifying and documenting the push factors causing migration of a section
of urban dwellers from open to gated neighborhoods. The study results are expected to influence urban housing
policy decisions towards developing sustainable urban housing typologies. The researcher reviewed existing
literature from local and international scholars in order to understand the variables in the phenomenon before
engaging in a field study. This study adopted a cross-sectional survey design so as to allow the researcher to relate
many different variables at the same time. The target population of gated communities was restricted to only those
classified as lifestyle and prestige types that were found to be complete and occupied at the time of study. Eight
gated communities were randomly sampled for the study. The main findings that drive GCs were security, lifestyle
and location. Further, residents wanted to be involved in the decision making in management of the GCs. The study
recommends clear development guidelines, flexible building standards and offer quality public services.

Keywords


Ajibola, M. O, Oloke, O. C. and Ogungbemi, A. O. (2011).
Impacts of gated communities on residential property values
in Lagos Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4-12.
Atkinson, R. and Blandy, S. (2005). Introduction:
International perspectives on the new enclavism and rise of
gated communities. Journal of Urban Studies. Volume 20 Issue
2 pp177-186: Taylor &Francis Group, Abingdon, UK.
Atkinson, R., Blandy, S., Flint and Lister, D. (2004).Gated
communities in England. London: Office of the Deputy Prime
Minister.
Ayieko, F. (2010, September 9). Why you may not secure a
loan with your flat. Daily Nation, DN2, pp 2-3.
Barnes, S. (2009). Gated Communities: A Discussion of the
Reasons and Consequences of Housing Choices. South Africa:
Flinders University.
Blakely, E.J. and Snyder, M.G. (1997). Divided We
Fall: Gated and Walled Communities in the United States.
Architecture of Fear: Princeton Architectural Press, New York.
Behind the Urban Curtains. (2005). Sydney Morning Herald.
Retrieved November 11, 201 2, 2012 from http://www.
smh.com au/news/National/Behind –the- urban –curtain
/2005/03/03/1109700606439.html.
Borsdorf, A. ; Hidalgo, R. (2009, November). Fragmented
city changing patterns in latin american cities.the right to the
city: the entitled and the excluded - The Urban Reinventors,
Special issue. http://www.springer.com/978-90-481-3738-1.
Csizmady, A. (2011, July). Conflicts around Gated
Communities, Enhr Conference. Eötvös Lorand University,
Centre for Urban and Regional Research, Hungarian Academy
of Sciences, Institute of Sociology, Budapest, Hungary.
Dillon, D. (1994). Fortress America: More and more of us
living behind locked gates. Planning, 60, 2-8.
Donzelot, J. (1999), La nouvelle question urbaine, Esprit,
n°11, November, pp. 87.
Ghonimi, I., El Zamly, H., Khairy. M., Soilman, M. (2010).
Understanding and formulating gated communities inside
Greater Cairo new towns urban fabric, 46th ISOCARP
Congress, 2010.
Goix, R. L. (2005). Gated communities: sprawl and social
segregation in Southern California. Housing Studies, 20 (2),
pp. 323-343.
Grant, J. (2003). September). Planning responses to gated
communities in Canada, Working Paper. Presented at Gated
Communities: Building Social Division or Safer Communities?
Glasgow, 18-19, September 2003.
Grant. J., Greene, K., & Maxwell. K. (2004). The planning
and policy implications of gated communities. Canadian
Journal of Urban Research. 13(1). 70-88.
Hall, P. (2000). ‘Social Capital in Britain’. British Journal of
Politics. 29, pp. 417-461.
Kenya Private Developers Association (KPDA) Report 2014.
(2014). Nairobi: Oxford Business Group.
Landman, K. (2004). Gated communities in South Africa: A
review of the relevant policies and their implications. BP615:
STEP BOU/1348.
Landman, K. & Schoiteich, M (2002). Urban fortresses:
Gated communities as a reaction to crime. African Security
Review, 11(4), pp.71-84
Mc Kenzie, E. (1994).Privatopia: Homeowner Associations
and the Rise of Residential Private Government. New Haven,
London. Yale University Press.
McKenzie (2005). Constructing the Pomerium in Las
Vegas: A case studies of emerging trends in American gated
communities. Housing Studies, 20 (2), pp.187-203.
McKenzie, E. (1998). "Reinventing common interest
developments: Reflections on a policy role for the judiciary”, J
Marshall Law Review, vol. 31, pp. 397-427.
Mugenda, O. M. & Mugenda, A.G. (1999). Research
Methods. Quantitative & Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi:
Press African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS).
Obala, L. M. (2011). The relationship between urban land
conflicts and inequity: the case of Nairobi. Unpublished PhD
thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South
Africa.
Ozkan E. and Kozaman, S. (2006). Gated communities: as
an efficient force in the fragmentation process of Istanbul, 42nd
ISoCaRP Congress 2006.
Republic of Kenya (ROK). (2009). Sectional Properties Act,
1987 No. 21 of 1987 Rev. 2009 of the Laws of Kenya. Nairobi:
Government Printer.
Republic of Kenya (ROK) (2015). Draft Guidelines for
Implementation of Community Policing- Nyumba Kumi
Usalama wa Msingi. 4th Draft Guidelines on Community
Policing, 30th March, 2015. Nairobi: Government Printer.
Sayer, A. (1992). Method in Social Science. London:
Routledge.
Sayer, A. (2000). Realism and Social Science. London:
SAGE.
Sayer, R.A. (1984). Method in social science: a realistic
18
International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development
Vol.7, No.4 Atumn 2017
approach. Social Science-271, Hutchinson University Library.
Senkantuka, I. (2009). Management with the People: An
Enabling Approach to Neighborhood Road Infrastructure
Management in Kampala City. Stockholm: University Service.
Xavier, G. (2008, May). Gated and Guarded Communities:
Security Concerns or Elitist Practice? Paper presented at Asian
Law Institute Conference, Singapore.
Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics, an introductory analysis (2nd
Ed). New York: Harper and Row.