An Efficient Double Skin Façade for an Office Building in Shiraz City

Document Type: Original Paper


1 M.A., Yasuj Branch, Islamic Azad University.

2 Assidtant Professor, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


Energy efficiency in office buildings has been the center of attention for many researches. This special attention is due to highly energy consumption in this building type. Refinement of facade and building’s envelop is a good approach to reduce buildings energy requirements. Double skin facade concepts are commonly used to achieve that object. Although the concept is not new, there is a growing tendency from the architects to put it into practice. However inappropriate selection of technical parameters in this kind of façade, such as its interior/ exterior openings, layers, materials and shading device would lead to reverse expected results. The objective of this study is to improve and optimize the thermal performance of an office building in hot and dry climate. For this purpose a suitable double skin façade concept is designed to reduce the building’s annual energy requirements. This concept is optimized by integrating with a windcatcher. The optimization is performed based on simulating a designed office building by Energy Plus software. The results revealed that double skin façade integrated with wind catcher can significantly reduce annual energy requirement by 26.65%. The proposed solution can be considered as an effective platform for sustainable architecture and reduction of energy consumption.


Blanco, J. M., Arriaga, P., Rojí, E., & Cuadrado, J. (2014). Investigating the thermal behavior of double-skin perforated sheet façades: Part A: Model characterization and validation procedure. Building and Environment82, 50-62.

de Gracia, A., Navarro, L., Castell, A., Ruiz-Pardo, Á., Álvarez, S., & Cabeza, L. F. (2012). Solar absorption in a ventilated facade with PCM. Experimental results. Energy Procedia30, 986-994.

Chan, A. L. S., Chow, T. T., Fong, K. F., & Lin, Z. (2009). Investigation on energy performance of double skin facade in Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings41(11), 1135-1142.

Joe, J., Choi, W., Kwak, Y., & Huh, J. H. (2014). Optimal design of a multi-story double skin facade. Energy and Buildings76, 143-150.

Coma, J., Pérez, G., Solé, C., Castell, A., & Cabeza, L. F. (2014). New green facades as passive systems for energy savings on buildings. Energy procedia57, 1851-1859.

 Diarce, G., Campos-Celador, Á., Martin, K., Urresti, A., García-Romero, A., & Sala, J. M. (2014). A comparative study of the CFD modeling of a ventilated active façade including phase change materials. Applied Energy126, 307-317.

Gratia, E., & De Herde, A. (2007). Greenhouse effect in double-skin facade. Energy and buildings39(2), 199-211.‏

Wong, P. C., Prasad, D., & Behnia, M. (2008). A new type of double-skin façade configuration for the hot and humid climate. Energy and Buildings40(10), 1941-1945.

Ding, W., Hasemi, Y., & Yamada, T. (2005). Natural ventilation performance of a double-skin façade with a solar chimney. Energy and Buildings37(4), 411-418.

 Khalili, M., & Amindeldar, S. (2014). Traditional solutions in low energy buildings of hot-arid regions of Iran. Sustainable Cities and Society13, 171-181.

 Bahadori, M. N., & Yaghobi, M. (2006). Ventilation and natural cooling system in traditional buildings of Iran. University Publication Center, Tehran.

 A’zami, A. (2005, May). Badgir in traditional Iranian architecture. In International Conference “Passive and Low Energy Cooling for the Built Environment”, Santorini, Greece (pp. 1021-1026).

 Moghaddam, E. H., Amindeldar, S., & Besharatizadeh, A. (2011). New approach to natural ventilation in public buildings inspired by Iranian's traditional windcatcher. Procedia Engineering21, 42-52.

 Montazeri, H., Montazeri, F., Azizian, R., & Mostafavi, S. (2010). Two-sided wind catcher performance evaluation using experimental, numerical and analytical modeling. Renewable Energy35(7), 1424-1435.

 Campton, P. D. (2001). Plant Engineer's Handbook.UK :Colt International Limited.

 Afshin, M., Sohankar, A., Manshadi, M. D., & Esfeh, M. K. (2016). An experimental study on the evaluation of natural ventilation performance of a two-sided wind-catcher for various wind angles. Renewable Energy85, 1068-1078.

VakiliNejhad, R., Mehdi ZadeSeraj, F., & MofidiShemirani, S. (2013). Principles of static cooling systems in Iranian traditional architectural elements. Journal of Iranian Svientific Association of Architecture and Urbanism, 3(1), 159-147.

Gratia, E., & De Herde, A. (2007). The most efficient position of shading devices in a double-skin facade. Energy and Buildings39(3), 364-373.

Mateus, N. M., Pinto, A., & da Graça, G. C. (2014). Validation of EnergyPlus thermal simulation of a double skin naturally and mechanically ventilated test cell. Energy and Buildings75, 511-522.

Behzadianmehr, A., Bayat, A., Kiani, A. & Bayat, M. (2013). An Analysis on the effect of climatic factors on the architecture of hiraz city, Eighth Conference about Advances in science and technology with a focus on architecture and urbanism and sustainable development. Iran-Mashhad.

Management and Planning Organization. (1996). Statistical report for Fars province. Iran Statistical Yearbook.

 Kasmaee, M. (1993). Climatic zoning in Iran, Housing and residential environment, Housing Building Research Center, First Edition.

Shaterian, R. (2009). Climate & Architecture. Tehran: Simay Danesh.

Stec, W. J., Van Paassen, A. H. C., & Maziarz, A. (2005). Modelling the double skin façade with plants. Energy and Buildings37(5), 419-427.Ballestini, Giuseppe, et al. "Possibilities and limitations of natural ventilation in restored industrial archaeology buildings with a double-skin façade in Mediterranean climates." Building and Environment 40.7 (2005): 983-995.‏