Medical Tourism in Tehran Developmentas a global city

Document Type: Original Paper


1 Ph.D.Condidate, Department of urban planning, faculty of Art and Architecture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Teharn, Iran.

3 Assistant professor, Department of Art and Architecture, Science and Research, Islamic Azad University, Tehran , Iran.


In comprehensive urban development plan, a vision of Tehran has been considered as a world city.
Tehran is also considered the regional medical center in the world of Islam in the comprehensive scientific map of
Iran. In the era of globalization, medical tourism is a growing market in developing countries and has become one of
fields of competition in regional development. According to the importance of strategic planning for the development
of medical tourism in the globalization process, the effect of medical service globalization in the mega city of Tehran,
and Tehran's response to the requirements are essential to investigate Tehran as a medical tourism destination. This is
a descriptive survey and also an analytical and exploratory study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed
in this research. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 20 experts and a Delphi questionnaire. In the
first step, a desk study was performed and the conceptual model was developed. External (environmental threats
and opportunities) and internal (strengths and weaknesses) factors were analyzed by SWOT matrix. According to
the SWOT matrix, medical tourism industry was in WO and SPACE matrix confirmed the result of the IE matrix.
Percent using four strategies calculated and strategies ranked quantitatively by QSPM matrix as follows: i) Marketing
and Information System Development, ii) Public Infrastructure Development, iii) Product Development, iv) Human Resource Development. Accordingly, policies were developed..


Abdul Aziz, Y., Samdin, Z., Khairil, W. A. & Zulhamri, A. (2015). Developing an Index for Medical Tourism. International Business Management, (9), 412-415.

Agha zadeh, H., Estiri, M., and Aslanlou, B. (2007). Factors affecting the Competitiveness of Iranian Firms. Quarterly Journal of Economic Studies, No. 3, 39-50.

Bakr, M. A. A. (2015). Social and Cultural Impacts of Tourism Growth in Coastal Environments and the Potential for Sustainability: Case Study of Egypt and USA. International Journal of Arts and Humanities. 1(2), 32-48.

Baud-Bovy, M.,  Lawson, F. R. (1997). Tourism and recreation development. The Architectural Press.

Bramwell, W. & Lane, B. (1993). Sustainable Tourism: An Evolving Global Approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, (1), 1-5.

Comprehensive Scientific Map (2013). Strategic Committee to Implement Comprehensive Scientific Map. Council of Cultural Revolution, Part A, Article 1-5, 5th Chapter: Author.

Cooper, C., Wahab, S. (2000).Turism in the age of globalization. Routledge, London.

Cooper, C. (2002). Sustainability and tourism visions.VII Congreso Internacional del CLAD sobre la Reforma delEstado y de la AdministraciŮŽn PŮ’blica, Lisboa, Portugal, (pp. 8-11).

Connell, J. (2006). Medical tourism: Sea, sun, sand and surgery. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1093–1100.

Connell, J. (2013). Contemporary medical tourism: Conceptualisation, culture and commodification. Tourism Management, 34(6), 1–13.

David, M. & David, F. (2009). The Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) Applied to a retail computer store. Coastal Business Journal, 8(1).

Delgoshaei, B., Jabbari, A., Farzin, M. R., ShrbafchyZADE, N. AND Tabibi, S.J. (2013). Current medical tourism: A Case Study of Iran. Journal of Payesh, 11, 179-171.

Farrell, B. (1992). Tourism as an Element in Sustainable Development: Hana, Maui. Smith, V L and Eadington W R (eds) Tourism Alternatives University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 115-132.

Friedman, J. & Wolf, G. (1982). World city formation: an agenda for research and action. Reprinted in NeilBrenner (Eds). (2006). The Global Cities Reader, Routledge.

Goodrich, J., & Goodrich, G. (1987). Health care tourism - An exploratory study. Tourism Management, 8(3), 217–222.

GÜRBÜZ, T. (2013). A Modified Strategic Position and Action Evaluation (SPACE) Matrix Method, Proceedings of the International Multi Conference of Engineers and Computer Scientists, (3).

Heath, E. & Wall, G. (1992). Marketing tourism destinations: a strategic planning approach. University of Minnesota: Wiley

Heung, V. C. S., Kucukusta, D., & Song, H. (2010). A conceptual model of medical tourism: implications for future research. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 27(3), 236-251.

 Jamal, T.  & Robinson, M. (2009). The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Studies. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Kalshrtti, P., Pillai, D. (2008). Tourism products development and management medical tourism-A Shifting Paradigm. Proceedings of the 1st Conference on tourism in India-Challenges Ahead, 15-17.

Kazemi, Z. (2008). Study of the Effective Factors for Attracting Medical Tourism in Iran. Master’s Thesis, Lulea University of Technology.

Medical tourism: A review of the literature and analysis of a role for bilateral trade (2011, May 2016). Health Policy, 276- 282. Retrieved May2016, from

Mill, R. C.,  &  Morrison, A. M. (1985). The tourism system: an introductory text. Prentice-Hall International.

Parhizgar, M. M., Mahmoudimeymand, M. & Dehban, B. (2003). Strategy development through a comprehensive framework strategy. Vision of business management, 1, 42-58.

Rahnemai, M. T., Rezvani, M.R., Rahimpour. A, Jafari. F. (2016). Evaluation of Tourism Websites from Urban Development Perspective (Case Study: Metropolitan Tehran). International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, 5(3).

Sadre momtaz, N. Agharahimi, Z. (1389). Medical tourism in Iran: strategies for development. Health Management, 7(Special Volum), 516-523.

Salau, T.I. (2016). Urbanisation and the State of Infrastructure in the Developing World Cities. International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, 6(2).

Short, John Rene. (2009). Black holes and weak links in the global city network, Trans. (M.Ghourchi, G. Rostami), Dansh-e Shahr (No. 2). Center for Studies and Planning in Tehran: Author.

Shone, M. C., Simmons, D. G., Dalziel, P. (2016). Evolving roles for local government in tourism development: a political economy perspective, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(12), 1674-1690.

Smeral, E. (1998). The impact of globalization on small and medium enterprises: new challenges for tourism policies in European countries. Tourism management, (19)4, 371-380.